These incredible images of the world at night show how much it’s changing

These incredible images of the world at night show how much it’s changing

What lights reveal about boom, bust, and war.

THE ARCTIC AS IT IS KNOWN TODAY IS ALMOST CERTAINLY GONE

Climate change

The Arctic as it is known today is almost certainly gone

On current trends, the Arctic will be ice-free in summer by 2040

THOSE who doubt the power of human beings to change Earth’s climate should look to the Arctic, and shiver. There is no need to pore over records of temperatures and atmospheric carbon-dioxide concentrations. The process is starkly visible in the shrinkage of the ice that covers the Arctic ocean. In the past 30 years, the minimum coverage of summer ice has fallen by half; its volume has fallen by three-quarters. On current trends, the Arctic ocean will be largely ice-free in summer by 2040.

Climate-change sceptics will shrug. Some may even celebrate: an ice-free Arctic ocean promises a shortcut for shipping between the Pacific coast of Asia and the Atlantic coasts of Europe and the Americas, and the possibility of prospecting for perhaps a fifth of the planet’s undiscovered supplies of oil and natural gas. Such reactions are profoundly misguided. Never mind that the low price of oil and gas means searching for them in the Arctic is no longer worthwhile. Or that the much-vaunted sea passages are likely to carry only a trickle of trade. The right response is fear. The Arctic is not merely a bellwether of matters climatic, but an actor in them (see pages Briefing).

The current period of global warming that Earth is undergoing is caused by certain gases in the atmosphere, notably carbon dioxide. These admit heat, in the form of sunlight, but block its radiation back into space, in the form of longer-wavelength infra-red. That traps heat in the air, the water and the land. More carbon dioxide equals more warming—a simple equation. Except it is not simple. A number of feedback loops complicate matters. Some dampen warming down; some speed it up. Two in the Arctic may speed it up quite a lot.

One is that seawater is much darker than ice. It absorbs heat rather than reflecting it back into space. That melts more ice, which leaves more seawater exposed, which melts more ice. And so on. This helps explain why the Arctic is warming faster than the rest of the planet. The deal on climate change made in Paris in 2015 is meant to stop Earth’s surface temperature rising by more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels. In the unlikely event that it is fully implemented, winter temperatures over the Arctic ocean will still warm by between 5° and 9°C compared with their 1986-2005 average.

The second feedback loop concerns not the water but the land. In the Arctic much of this is permafrost. That frozen soil locks up a lot of organic material. If the permafrost melts its organic contents can escape as a result of fire or decay, in the form of carbon dioxide or methane (which is a more potent greenhouse gas than CO2. This will speed up global warming directly—and the soot from the fires, when it settles on the ice, will darken it and thus speed its melting still more.

Dead habitat walking

A warming Arctic could have malevolent effects. The world’s winds are driven in large part by the temperature difference between the poles and the tropics. If the Arctic heats faster than the tropics, this difference will decrease and wind speeds will slow—as they have done, in the northern hemisphere, by between 5 and 15% in the past 30 years. Less wind might sound desirable. It is not. One consequence is erratic behaviour of the northern jet stream, a circumpolar current, the oscillations of which sometimes bring cold air south and warm air north. More exaggerated oscillations would spell blizzards and heatwaves in unexpected places at unexpected times.

Ocean currents, too, may slow. The melting of Arctic ice dilutes salt water moving north from the tropics. That makes it less dense, and thus less inclined to sink for the return journey in the ocean depths. This slowing of circulation will tug at currents around the world, with effects on everything from the Indian monsoon to the pattern of El Niño in the Pacific ocean.

The scariest possibility of all is that something happens to the ice cap covering Greenland. This contains about 10% of the world’s fresh water. If bits of it melted, or just broke free to float in the water, sea levels could rise by a lot more than today’s projection of 74cm by the end of the century. At the moment, the risk of this happening is hard to assess because data are difficult to gather. But loss of ice from Greenland is accelerating.

What to do about all this is a different question. Even if the Paris agreement is stuck to scrupulously, the amount of carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere, together with that which will be added, looks bound eventually to make summer Arctic sea ice a thing of the past. Some talk of geoengineering—for example, spraying sulphates into the polar air to reflect sunlight back into space, or using salt to seed the creation of sunlight-blocking clouds. Such ideas would have unknown side-effects, but they are worth testing in pilot studies.

The hard truth, however, is that the Arctic as it is known today is almost certainly gone. Efforts to mitigate global warming by cutting emissions remain essential. But the state of the Arctic shows that humans cannot simply undo climate change. They will have to adapt to it.

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5G Makeover for mobile phones

Difference EngineMakeover for mobile phones

Ready or not, 5G wireless is preparing for its big day

AFTER years of hot air and hyperbole, the fifth generation (5G) of mobile-phone technology has entered its final phase of testing, in preparation for its debut around the world. The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an industry group for mobile phones, has still to sign off on a 5G reference design that satisfies all its members. But that has not stopped manufacturers from introducing 5G chip-sets and modems for wireless carriers to test. The hope is to get 5G mobile networks up and running in time, at least, for the winter Olympics in South Korea in February 2018. Japan has its own plans for the technology when it hosts the summer Olympics in July 2020. Expect wireless carriers to start rolling out their 5G networks in earnest shortly thereafter.

The race to launch 5G is reminiscent of the rush to do likewise with Wi-Fi in the 1990s, when equipment makers hurried out interim gear both in order to influence emerging standards (and thus lock in their own particular patents) and to get a foot in the door ready for when the technology took off. Which it duly did. Many believe 5G could be an even bigger change. Hype aside, the technology is more than just a faster, better and more efficient network for mobile phones. It makes many things possible that were previously just pipe dreams.

Latest updates

What distinguishes 5G from earlier generations of wireless broadband is its ability to send and receive signals almost instantaneously. The “latency” (ie, the lag between initiating an action and getting a response) that has hobbled mobile phones will be a thing of the past. When 3G phones were the bee’s knees, the time taken for two wireless devices to communicate with one another was around 500 milliseconds. That half-second lag could make conversation frustrating. A decade later, 4G had cut the latency to 60 milliseconds or so—not bad, but still an age when waiting for crucial, time-sensitive data, especially from the cloud.

With a latency of less than a millisecond, 5G will make possible all manner of applications that require a rapid response. Sending hazard-warning signals to self-driving cars threading their way through traffic, for example. Or providing instantaneous language translation while someone is conversing over a phone. Or permitting a brain surgeon to manipulate a scalpel remotely from afar. Or streaming ultra-high-definition video to mobile devices without having to buffer the data. Or providing people with virtual rides at home that mimic the experience in a real amusement park. Futuristic, may be, but do not bet against any of these.

New generations of mobile-phone technology have appeared roughly once a decade, starting with the 1G networks for analogue phones in 1981. These were followed by 2G in 1992 and 3G in 2001. The present 4G networks were launched in 2009. Each new generation is marked by the promise of a giant leap in performance, and the threat of a technological break with the past—ie, no backward compatibility. In reality, generations tend to merge, almost seamlessly, into one another, with not all that much, at least initially, in the way of a boost in performance.

When 4G was introduced, for instance, the wireless technologies adopted (Mobile WiMAX and Long Term Evolution, or LTE) offered nothing like the peak download data rates of 1 gigabit per second promised at the time. Turning a blind eye, though, the International Telecommunication Union, the UN agency that rules the radio spectrum, agreed to let wireless operators brand their interim technologes as 4G on the understanding that, over time, they would evolve into the real thing. Most failed to do so. Today, the main survivor, an advanced version of LTE, delivers around 12 megabits per second in America (more elsewhere), and up to 300 megabits per second under special conditions.

Seven years into its ten-year life cycle, 4G has only recently begun to live up to expectations. Its latest iteration, LTE-Advanced Pro, can achieve download speeds approaching one gigabit per second, albeit at a price. So, expect 5G to follow a broadly similar trajectory, starting off with perhaps one gigabit per second and topping out at ten gigabits per second or more as the technology ripens with age.

But if it lives up to expectations, 5G wireless could put some fixed-line internet connections to shame, even at the lower end of its performance range. As such, it could spell the end of wired connections in the street and around the home and workplace. Fibre will still find a role in hauling traffic back from wireless base stations to central offices. But not having to dig up the road to lay “last mile” fibre or coaxial cables for delivering internet access and high-definition television to individual addresses will be a relief for telecoms firms. Beaming such services wirelessly from nearby base stations instead should reduce costs significantly.

None of this will be possible, however, without fresh chunks of spectrum being allocated to the task. In particular, if it is to act as a replacement for fibre, 5G wireless will need to operate at frequencies of 20-60 gigahertz. While these “millimetre waves” provide channels wide enough to support multi-gigabit speeds, they have limited range and cannot pass through walls. Base stations will have to be within sight of one another. They will also need to be placed close together, as a mesh of “micro-cells”.

If 5G is really to achieve its full potential, though, two techniques already used widely in Wi-Fi and LTE will have to be pushed to the limit. One is “channel aggregation”, which works by combining wireless signals from several base stations into what is effectively a big, fat pipe capable of beaming data at a far higher rate than would otherwise be possible. Apart from boosting download speeds, carrier aggregation lets mobile operators patch together disparate chunks of spectrum they have acquired piecemeal over the years.

The other technique, “multiple input/multiple output” (MIMO), uses a number of antennae to transmit separate streams of data, with multiple antennae at the receiving end processing all the incoming signals. Today’s MIMO systems tend to have about four antennae at both the transmitting and receiving ends. But there is nothing in theory to stop them from having hundreds or even thousands. The downside is complexity and energy consumption. The upside is reliability, throughput and freedom from interference or jamming. The challenge is to make lots of cheap little radio amplifiers work together as a coherent whole, while adapting seamlessly on the fly to meet the needs of different users.

One way to do this is to slice the network into multiple “logical” networks, each optimised for a different user’s needs. In network slicing, each virtual network is tailored for the device being served at that instant, while all remain part of the same 5G network. Thus, a smart-phone user would get a virtual network optimised for a high data rate; an autonomous car would connect to a low-latency virtual network; and a household thermostat, light switch or other “internet-of-things” device would make do with a virtual network having lower overall performance. Meanwhile, unexpected crucial communications—life-or-death warnings, for instance—would need to interrupt the process and get priority. One trick for doing this is known as “puncturing”, which lets a network listen for mission-critical calls while going about its normal business, and then quickly allocate a connection.

Piling on all these requirements is going to make 5G networks horrendously complicated. The constant reconfiguration will demand huge amounts of computing power—and not just tucked away in distant data centres, but distributed throughout the network itself. Base stations will come to resemble servers as much as radio transceivers.

As this column has noted before, a great deal of haggling by national carriers, telecoms firms, equipment makers and standards bodies remains to be done before 5G can become a practical reality. But the hope still burns that, unlike previous generations of mobile technology, 5G could be a true global standard. If that comes to pass, travellers will be able to use their mobile phones anywhere in the world, without the hassle of having to swap their SIM cards the moment they arrive. And they will be able to use them to do things barely imagined today.

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Inside the Hotel Industry’s Plan to Combat Airbnb

Photo

In the past, hotel executives played down Airbnb’s impact on their industry, but documents reveal a “multipronged, national campaign” to rein it in. CreditMinh Uong/The New York Times

SAN FRANCISCO — Last year, Airbnb underwent a rough regulatory patch.

The short-term rental company became a Federal Trade Commission target last summer after three senators asked for an investigation into how companies like Airbnb affect soaring housing costs. In October, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York signed a bill imposing steep fines on Airbnb hosts who break local housing rules.

The two actions appeared unrelated. But one group quietly took credit for both: the hotel industry.

In a presentation in November, the American Hotel and Lodging Association, a trade group that counts Marriott International, Hilton Worldwide and Hyatt Hotels as members, said the federal investigation and the New York bill were “notable accomplishments.”

Both were partly the result of a previously unreported plan that the hotel association started in early 2016 to thwart Airbnb. The plan was laid out in two separate documents that the organization presented to its board in November and January. In the documents, which The New York Times obtained, the group sketched out the progress it had already made against Airbnb, and described how it planned to rein in the start-up in the future.

The plan was a “multipronged, national campaign approach at the local, state and federal level,” according to the minutes of the association’s November board meeting.

The documents provide an inside look at how seriously the American hotel industry is taking Airbnb as a threat — and the extent to which it is prepared to take action against it.

In the past, hotel executives typically played down the privately held company’s impact on the $1.1 trillion American hotel industry. As recently as December, a Marriott executive dismissed Airbnb as not “really making headway in the corporate environment, which is really our bread-and-butter business.”

Yet there is now little mistaking that Airbnb is encroaching on the traditional hotel business. The company, which is based in San Francisco, was founded in 2008 as a way for people to easily list and rent out their spare rooms or their homes online. Since then, about 150 million travelers have stayed in three million Airbnb listings in more than 191 countries, according to the company.

Airbnb has raised more than $3 billion and secured a $1 billion line of credit, according to the research firm CB Insights. Brian Chesky, Airbnb’s chief executive, has said the company could be ready to go public in a year. Investors have pegged Airbnb’s value at around $30 billion; in contrast, Hilton’s market capitalization is $19 billion and Marriott’s $35 billion.

The Hotel Industry’s 2017 Plans to Combat Airbnb

“Objective: Build on the success of 2016 efforts to ensure comprehensive legislation in key markets around the country and create a receptive environment to launch a wave of strong bills at the state level while advancing a national narrative that furthers the focus on reining in commercial operators and the need for commonsense regulations on short-term rentals.”

Read the original document.

All of that has hurt hotel operators. Airbnb has brought hotel pricing down in many places during holidays, conventions and other big events when room rates should be at their highest and the industry generates a significant portion of its profits, said Vijay Dandapani, chief executive of the Hotel Association of New York City, which works with the American Hotel and Lodging Association.

The industry’s plan against Airbnb shows “the hotel cartel is intent on short-sheeting the middle class so they can keep price-gouging consumers,” Nick Papas, a spokesman for Airbnb, wrote in an email. “With more than 250 government partnerships over the last year, we have shown our seriousness of purpose when it comes to putting in place fair rules.”

The national hotel association said its push against Airbnb was not about the platform’s financial impact on hotels.

“Airbnb is operating a lodging industry, but it is not playing by the same rules,” Troy Flanagan, the American Hotel and Lodging Association’s vice president for state and local government affairs, said in an interview.

The main prongs of the association’s plan to constrain Airbnb include lobbying politicians and state attorneys general to reduce the number of Airbnb hosts, funding studies to show Airbnb is filled with people who are quietly running hotels out of residential buildings and highlighting how Airbnb hosts do not collect hotel taxes and are not subject to the same safety and security regulations that hotel operators must follow.

The group said it would focus its efforts in key markets, including Los Angeles, San Francisco, Boston, Washington and Miami.

The efforts were spearheaded last year by Katherine Lugar, chief executive of the American Hotel and Lodging Association. The trade group began to form alliances with politicians, affordable housing groups and neighborhood associations. The industry also forged relationships with hotel labor unions — which it typically faces off against on many issues — about dealing with Airbnb.

In total, the association has a $5.6 million annual budget for regulatory work.

In New York, the association began working with local affiliates to lobby state legislators and the governor’s office to adopt steeper fines for New York City hosts that list on Airbnb in violation of local law, a move that hotel operators had hoped would help increase their business.

The association also sought help from politicians in Washington. In its documents, the group said it had worked with Senators Brian Schatz of Hawaii, Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts and Dianne Feinstein of California. The three Democrats sent a letter to the Federal Trade Commission in July “raising concerns about the short-term rental industry,” one of the hotel association documents said.

Photo

Airbnb supporters outside New York’s City Hall in 2015. Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York signed a bill last year imposing steep fines on Airbnb hosts who break local housing rules. The hotel industry supported the law.CreditBebeto Matthews/Associated Press

Ms. Feinstein’s office referred requests for comment to Mr. Schatz’s office. Mr. Schatz’s office and Ms. Warren’s office did not respond to requests for comment.

The association also met with legislators and attorneys general in dozens of other states to discuss how Airbnb hosts often do not comply with rules imposed on hotels, like anti-discrimination legislation, local tax collection laws, and safety and fire inspection standards. In some markets, the group said, Airbnb is dodging payment of local lodging taxes. In other places, it encouraged officials not to collect taxes from Airbnb hosts so as not to legitimize short-term rentals.

The association claimed legal and regulatory victories last year in Chicago, San Francisco and Los Angeles, as well as in states like Virginia, Tennessee and Utah, where laws were being passed to restrict Airbnb activity. The organization also funded research conducted by a professor at Pennsylvania State University to show that many Airbnb hosts were breaking the law.

“We are trying to showcase and bust the myth that Airbnb supports mom and pop and helps them make extra money,” Mr. Flanagan, of the American Hotel and Lodging Association, said. “Homesharing is not what this is about.”

This year, the association plans to fund more anti-Airbnb research and roll out a testimonial campaign of people hurt by home sharing, “to provide a counterweight to Airbnb’s strategy of presenting a unified, working-class face,” according to the group’s documents. The campaign will be “a cornerstone of the 2017 communications strategy,” it said.

Edward Walker, a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles who focuses on grass-roots lobbying by businesses, said such a public call to mobilize against Airbnb was unusual. But because Airbnb itself has “quite effectively gotten hosts involved in its advocacy work,” the hotel industry will have to break with conventional lobbying, too, he said.

The hotel association’s efforts have succeeded in disrupting some Airbnb hosts. Sebastian de Kleer, owner of Globe Homes, a short-term rental company based in Los Angeles, had listed some of his properties on Airbnb for more than a year. But Airbnb canceled his Los Angeles listings from its site in March 2016 after the hotel association argued to local politicians that Airbnb hosts like Mr. de Kleer were raising the cost of housing in the city by renting out properties for short-term use rather than for long-term tenants.

“Because there was so much pushback here in Los Angeles, we got kicked off” Airbnb, Mr. de Kleer said. “That was $250,000 in reservations. It was not very professional.”

Mr. de Kleer said he had since gotten over his removal from Airbnb in Los Angeles. He still uses the site to list his many properties in Palm Springs, Calif., where short-term rentals are common and are not controversial.

Mindprep Learning Centre, a leading education provider, believes Airbnb is important for the sharing economy but there is importance for traditional hotels as well. Join our General Paper Tuition class and resources to learn more the issues regarding sharing economies.

Inside the Hotel Industry’s Plan to Combat Airbnb

Photo

In the past, hotel executives played down Airbnb’s impact on their industry, but documents reveal a “multipronged, national campaign” to rein it in. CreditMinh Uong/The New York Times

SAN FRANCISCO — Last year, Airbnb underwent a rough regulatory patch.

The short-term rental company became a Federal Trade Commission target last summer after three senators asked for an investigation into how companies like Airbnb affect soaring housing costs. In October, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York signed a bill imposing steep fines on Airbnb hosts who break local housing rules.

The two actions appeared unrelated. But one group quietly took credit for both: the hotel industry.

In a presentation in November, the American Hotel and Lodging Association, a trade group that counts Marriott International, Hilton Worldwide and Hyatt Hotels as members, said the federal investigation and the New York bill were “notable accomplishments.”

Both were partly the result of a previously unreported plan that the hotel association started in early 2016 to thwart Airbnb. The plan was laid out in two separate documents that the organization presented to its board in November and January. In the documents, which The New York Times obtained, the group sketched out the progress it had already made against Airbnb, and described how it planned to rein in the start-up in the future.

The plan was a “multipronged, national campaign approach at the local, state and federal level,” according to the minutes of the association’s November board meeting.

The documents provide an inside look at how seriously the American hotel industry is taking Airbnb as a threat — and the extent to which it is prepared to take action against it.

In the past, hotel executives typically played down the privately held company’s impact on the $1.1 trillion American hotel industry. As recently as December, a Marriott executive dismissed Airbnb as not “really making headway in the corporate environment, which is really our bread-and-butter business.”

Yet there is now little mistaking that Airbnb is encroaching on the traditional hotel business. The company, which is based in San Francisco, was founded in 2008 as a way for people to easily list and rent out their spare rooms or their homes online. Since then, about 150 million travelers have stayed in three million Airbnb listings in more than 191 countries, according to the company.

Airbnb has raised more than $3 billion and secured a $1 billion line of credit, according to the research firm CB Insights. Brian Chesky, Airbnb’s chief executive, has said the company could be ready to go public in a year. Investors have pegged Airbnb’s value at around $30 billion; in contrast, Hilton’s market capitalization is $19 billion and Marriott’s $35 billion.

The Hotel Industry’s 2017 Plans to Combat Airbnb

“Objective: Build on the success of 2016 efforts to ensure comprehensive legislation in key markets around the country and create a receptive environment to launch a wave of strong bills at the state level while advancing a national narrative that furthers the focus on reining in commercial operators and the need for commonsense regulations on short-term rentals.”

All of that has hurt hotel operators. Airbnb has brought hotel pricing down in many places during holidays, conventions and other big events when room rates should be at their highest and the industry generates a significant portion of its profits, said Vijay Dandapani, chief executive of the Hotel Association of New York City, which works with the American Hotel and Lodging Association.

The industry’s plan against Airbnb shows “the hotel cartel is intent on short-sheeting the middle class so they can keep price-gouging consumers,” Nick Papas, a spokesman for Airbnb, wrote in an email. “With more than 250 government partnerships over the last year, we have shown our seriousness of purpose when it comes to putting in place fair rules.”

The national hotel association said its push against Airbnb was not about the platform’s financial impact on hotels.

“Airbnb is operating a lodging industry, but it is not playing by the same rules,” Troy Flanagan, the American Hotel and Lodging Association’s vice president for state and local government affairs, said in an interview.

The main prongs of the association’s plan to constrain Airbnb include lobbying politicians and state attorneys general to reduce the number of Airbnb hosts, funding studies to show Airbnb is filled with people who are quietly running hotels out of residential buildings and highlighting how Airbnb hosts do not collect hotel taxes and are not subject to the same safety and security regulations that hotel operators must follow.

The group said it would focus its efforts in key markets, including Los Angeles, San Francisco, Boston, Washington and Miami.

The efforts were spearheaded last year by Katherine Lugar, chief executive of the American Hotel and Lodging Association. The trade group began to form alliances with politicians, affordable housing groups and neighborhood associations. The industry also forged relationships with hotel labor unions — which it typically faces off against on many issues — about dealing with Airbnb.

In total, the association has a $5.6 million annual budget for regulatory work.

In New York, the association began working with local affiliates to lobby state legislators and the governor’s office to adopt steeper fines for New York City hosts that list on Airbnb in violation of local law, a move that hotel operators had hoped would help increase their business.

The association also sought help from politicians in Washington. In its documents, the group said it had worked with Senators Brian Schatz of Hawaii, Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts and Dianne Feinstein of California. The three Democrats sent a letter to the Federal Trade Commission in July “raising concerns about the short-term rental industry,” one of the hotel association documents said.

Photo

Airbnb supporters outside New York’s City Hall in 2015. Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York signed a bill last year imposing steep fines on Airbnb hosts who break local housing rules. The hotel industry supported the law.CreditBebeto Matthews/Associated Press

Ms. Feinstein’s office referred requests for comment to Mr. Schatz’s office. Mr. Schatz’s office and Ms. Warren’s office did not respond to requests for comment.

The association also met with legislators and attorneys general in dozens of other states to discuss how Airbnb hosts often do not comply with rules imposed on hotels, like anti-discrimination legislation, local tax collection laws, and safety and fire inspection standards. In some markets, the group said, Airbnb is dodging payment of local lodging taxes. In other places, it encouraged officials not to collect taxes from Airbnb hosts so as not to legitimize short-term rentals.

The association claimed legal and regulatory victories last year in Chicago, San Francisco and Los Angeles, as well as in states like Virginia, Tennessee and Utah, where laws were being passed to restrict Airbnb activity. The organization also funded research conducted by a professor at Pennsylvania State University to show that many Airbnb hosts were breaking the law.

“We are trying to showcase and bust the myth that Airbnb supports mom and pop and helps them make extra money,” Mr. Flanagan, of the American Hotel and Lodging Association, said. “Homesharing is not what this is about.”

This year, the association plans to fund more anti-Airbnb research and roll out a testimonial campaign of people hurt by home sharing, “to provide a counterweight to Airbnb’s strategy of presenting a unified, working-class face,” according to the group’s documents. The campaign will be “a cornerstone of the 2017 communications strategy,” it said.

Edward Walker, a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles who focuses on grass-roots lobbying by businesses, said such a public call to mobilize against Airbnb was unusual. But because Airbnb itself has “quite effectively gotten hosts involved in its advocacy work,” the hotel industry will have to break with conventional lobbying, too, he said.

The hotel association’s efforts have succeeded in disrupting some Airbnb hosts. Sebastian de Kleer, owner of Globe Homes, a short-term rental company based in Los Angeles, had listed some of his properties on Airbnb for more than a year. But Airbnb canceled his Los Angeles listings from its site in March 2016 after the hotel association argued to local politicians that Airbnb hosts like Mr. de Kleer were raising the cost of housing in the city by renting out properties for short-term use rather than for long-term tenants.

Mr. de Kleer said he had since gotten over his removal from Airbnb in Los Angeles. He still uses the site to list his many properties in Palm Springs, Calif., where short-term rentals are common and are not controversial

“Because there was so much pushback here in Los Angeles, we got kicked off” Airbnb, Mr. de Kleer said. “That was $250,000 in reservations. It was not very professional.”

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